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As of July 2015, no similar study has been conducted on a global basis.[81] * From 1979–2014, the three temperate datasets posted above differed from one another by an annual average of 0.13ºF (0.07ºC).The largest gap between any of the datasets in any year was 0.38ºF (0.21ºC), and the smallest gap was 0ºF/C: * To reconstruct global average temperatures in the era before instrumental measurements were made on a global scale, scientists use proxies that respond to changes in climate, such as the widths of tree rings and certain elements of the geological record, to estimate temperature variations in the past.[83] [84] * The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific body established in 1988 by the United Nations and World Meteorological Organization.A caveat of this finding is that it is based upon weather balloon data, which “must be treated with great caution, particularly at [higher] altitudes….”[214] [215] states that the “sign and the magnitude of the global mean cloud feedback depends on so many factors that it remains very uncertain.” This is because some types of clouds trap heat while others reflect it.[217] [218] [219] found that ice clouds (also called cirrus clouds[220]) exert a “strongly negative” feedback to temperature changes, regardless of whether these changes are increases or decreases.A caveat of this finding is that the feedback process operates “on a time scale of weeks,” and “it is not obvious whether similar behavior would occur on the longer time scales associated with global warming.”[221] [222] * Other feedbacks that may have “a substantial impact on the magnitude, the pattern, or the timing of climate warming” include snow coverage, temperature gradients in Earth’s atmosphere, aerosols, trace gases, soil moisture changes, and ocean processes.[223] * Per a 2003 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, apparent food consumption per person increased by 15% worldwide, 25% in developing countries, and more than 36% in China.do not allow any observational assessment” because many variables are involved, and “it is not possible …to insure that only one variable is changing.”[213] found that during 1973-2007, humidity increased in the lowest part of Earth’s atmosphere but decreased at higher altitudes, implying that the “long-term water vapor feedback is negative—that it would reduce rather than amplify” the warming effect of CO2.He informed the * In 2013, “Forecast the Facts”—a “grassroots human rights organization dedicated to ensuring that Americans hear the truth about climate change”—published the following graphic purporting to show a recent photo of the North Pole: * After publishing an article documenting the facts above, Just Facts contacted Forecast the Facts to offer an opportunity to respond.[191] As of January 2016, Forecast the Facts has not replied or issued a correction.[192] [193] * The natural variability of Earth’s climate is such that a glacier formerly existed on Hawaii,[196] and glaciers once covered almost all of Canada, New England, and the northern central United States: * In addition to carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, other factors that have been implicated by scientists as primary causes of modern climate change include but are not limited to: * A central debate among scientists about man-made greenhouse gases involves how much natural processes reduce or amplify the effects of these gases.Positive feedbacks amplify the effects, and negative feedbacks diminish them.[209] * The climate models included in the 2007 IPCC report are programmed with positive feedbacks for water vapor that more than double the warming effect of CO2.[210] This is based upon the fact that warmer air evaporates more water, thus creating more water vapor, which is a greenhouse gas.[211] [212] states that the feedbacks used in climate models are based upon “methods that …

Natural processes absorb the equivalent of all natural emissions plus about 57% of man-made emissions, leaving an additional 16 billion metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere each year.[36] † In permafrost regions, perennial snow accumulations trap air bubbles that leave records of past airborne CO2 concentrations,[38] [39] [40] and because regional CO2 concentrations vary by less than 10 parts per million over the Earth, these local records are globally representative.[41] [42] * Instruments located on satellites can measure certain properties of oxygen that vary with temperature.

For instance, the sea level in the Indian Ocean is about 330 feet below the worldwide average, while the sea level in Ireland is about 200 feet above average.

Such variations are caused by gravity, winds, and currents; and the practical effects of these phenomena are dynamic.

One of these was a series of buoys, each containing thermometers located ten feet above the water and at one foot below the water.

The study found that water temperatures increased on average by 0.23ºF (0.13ºC) per decade between 19, while air temperatures cooled by 0.02 to 0.09ºF (0.01 to 0.06ºC) per decade during the same period.[78] examined the locations of 1,007 of the 1,221 monitoring stations used to determine average surface temperature changes across the continental United States.

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